What is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder?       

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood disorders and can continue through adolescence and adulthood. Symptoms include difficulty staying focused and paying attention, difficulty controlling behavior, and hyperactivity (over-activity). ADHD has three subtypes:

  • Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type:  Most symptoms (six or more) are in the hyperactivity-impulsivity categories.  Fewer than six symptoms of inattention are present, although inattention may still be present to some degree.  
  • Children with hyperactivity may experience symptoms that include:
  1. Fidget and squirm in their seats
  2. Talk nonstop
  3. Dash around, touching or playing with anything and everything in sight
  4. Have trouble sitting still during dinner, school, and story time
  5. Be constantly in motion
  6. Have difficulty doing quiet tasks or activities.
  • Children with Impulsivity may experience symptoms that include:
  1. Be very impatient
  2. Blurt out inappropriate comments, show their emotions without restraint, and act without regard for consequences
  3. Have difficulty waiting for things they want or waiting their turns in games
  4. Often interrupt conversations or others’ activities
  • Predominantly Inattentive Type:  The majority of symptoms (six or more) are in the inattention category and fewer than six symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity are present, although hyperactivity-impulsivity may still be present to some degree.  Children with this subtype are less likely to act out. They may sit quietly, but they are not paying attention to what they are doing. Therefore, the child may be overlooked, and parents and teachers may not notice that he or she has ADHD.  Symptoms may include:
  1. Being easily distracted, miss details, forget things, and frequently switch from one activity to another
  2. Having difficulty focusing on one thing
  3. Becoming bored with a task after only a few minutes, unless they are doing something enjoyable
  4. Having difficulty focusing attention on organizing and completing a task or learning something new
  5. Having trouble completing or turning in homework assignments, often losing things (e.g., pencils, toys, assignments) needed to complete tasks or activities
  6. Not seeming to listen when spoken to
  7. Daydreaming, become easily confused, and move slowly
  8. Have difficulty processing information as quickly and accurately as others
  9. Struggle to follow instructions.
  • Combined Hyperactive-Impulsive and Inattentive Type:  Six or more symptoms of inattention and six or more symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity are present.  Most children have the combined type of ADHD.

 What Causes ADHD?      

Researchers are not sure what causes ADHD, although many studies suggest that genes play a large role.  In addition to genetics, we look at possible environmental factors such as how nutrition and the social environment might contribute to ADHD.

How is ADHD Diagnosed?      

Children mature at different rates and have different personalities, temperaments, and energy levels.  Most children get distracted, act impulsively, and struggle to concentrate at one time or another. Sometimes, these normal factors may be mistaken for ADHD.  ADHD symptoms usually appear early in life, often between the ages of 3 and 6.  Parents may first notice that their child loses interest in things sooner than other children, or seems constantly “out of control.”  Often, teachers notice the symptoms first, when a child has trouble following rules, or frequently “spaces out” in the classroom or on the playground.  No single test can diagnose a child as having ADHD.  Instead, a Psychologist needs to gather information about the child, and his or her behavior and environment.  The Psychologist will first try to rule out other possibilities for the symptoms.  For example, certain situations, events, or health conditions may cause temporary behaviors in a child that seem like ADHD or any of the following:

  • Has any undetected hearing or vision problems
  • Has any medical problems that affect thinking and behavior
  • Has any learning disabilities
  • Has anxiety or depression, or other psychiatric problems that might cause ADHD-like symptoms
  • Has been affected by a significant and sudden change, such as the death of a family member, a divorce, or parent’s job loss.

A Psychologist will also check school and medical records for clues, to see if the child’s home or school settings appear unusually stressful or disrupted, and gather information from the child’s parents and teachers. 

  • Are the behaviors excessive and long-term, and do they affect all aspects of the child’s life?
  • Do they happen more often in this child compared with the child’s peers?
  • Are the behaviors a continuous problem or a response to a temporary situation?
  • Do the behaviors occur in several settings or only in one place, such as the playground, classroom, or home?

How is ADHD treated?      

Currently available treatments focus on reducing the symptoms of ADHD and improving functioning.  Treatments include medication, various types of psychotherapy, education or training, or a combination of treatments.  One psychotherapy used is Behavioral Therapy which aims to help a child change his or her behavior.  It might involve practical assistance, such as help organizing tasks or completing schoolwork, or working through emotionally difficult events.  Behavioral Therapy also teaches a child how to monitor his or her own behavior.  Learning to give oneself praise or rewards for acting in a desired way, such as controlling anger or thinking before acting, is another goal of behavioral therapy.  Parents and teachers also can give positive or negative feedback for certain behaviors.  In addition, clear rules, chore lists, and other structured routines can help a child control his or her behavior. Therapists may teach children social skills, such as how to wait their turn, share toys, ask for help, or respond to teasing, learning to read facial expressions and the tone of voice in others, and how to respond appropriately can also be part of social skills training.

How can parents help?

Children with ADHD need guidance and understanding from their parents and teachers to reach their full potential and to succeed in school.  Before a child is diagnosed, frustration, blame, and anger may have built up within a family.  Parents and children may need special help to overcome bad feelings.  Psychologists can educate parents about ADHD and how it impacts a family. They also will help the child and his or her parents develop new skills, attitudes, and ways of relating to each other.  Parenting skills training helps parents learn how to use a system of rewards and consequences to change a child’s behavior.  Parents are taught to give immediate and positive feedback for behaviors they want to encourage, and ignore or redirect behaviors they want to discourage.  In some cases, the use of “time-outs” may be used when the child’s behavior gets out of control.  In a time-out, the child is removed from the upsetting situation and sits alone for a short time to calm down.  Parents are also encouraged to share a pleasant or relaxing activity with the child, to notice and point out what the child does well, and to praise the child’s strengths and abilities.  They may also learn to structure situations in more positive ways.  For example, they may restrict the number of playmates to one or two, so that their child does not become overstimulated.  Or, if the child has trouble completing tasks, parents can help their child divide large tasks into smaller, more manageable steps.  Also, parents may benefit from learning stress-management techniques to increase their own ability to deal with frustration, so that they can respond calmly to their child’s behavior.  Sometimes, the whole family may need therapy.  Psychologists can help family members find better ways to handle disruptive behaviors and to encourage behavior changes.  

Tips to Help Kids Stay Organized and Follow Directions

  • Schedule:  Keep the same routine every day, from wake-up time to bedtime. Include time for homework, outdoor play, and indoor activities. Keep the schedule on the refrigerator or on a bulletin board in the kitchen. 
  • Organize everyday items:  Have a place for everything, and keep everything in its place. This includes clothing, backpacks, and toys.
  • Use homework and notebook organizers:  Use organizers for school material and supplies. Stress to your child the importance of writing down assignments and bringing home the necessary books.
  • Be clear and consistent:  Set consistent rules that they can understand and follow.
  • Give praise when rules are followed:  Children with ADHD often receive criticism.  Look for good behavior, and praise it.

How can I work with my child’s school?     

If you think your child has ADHD, or a teacher raises concerns, you may be able to request that the school conduct an evaluation to determine whether he or she qualifies for special education services.  Start by speaking with your child’s teacher, school counselor, or the school’s student support team, to begin an evaluation.  A team of professionals, including the Psychologist, conducts the evaluation using a variety of tools and measures. that look at all areas related to the child’s disability.  Once your child has been evaluated, he or she has several options, depending on the specific needs.  If special education services are needed and your child is eligible under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, the school district must develop an “individualized education program” specifically for your child within 30 days.  


The most common type of medication used for treating ADHD is called a “stimulant.”  Although it may seem unusual to treat ADHD with a medication considered a stimulant, it actually has a calming effect on children with ADHD.  Many types of stimulant medications are available. Also available are non-stimulants that work differently than stimulants. For many children, ADHD medications reduce hyperactivity and impulsivity and improve their ability to focus, work, and learn. Stimulant medications come in different forms, such as a pill, capsule, liquid, or skin patch.  Some medications also come in short-acting, long-acting, or extended release varieties.  In each of these varieties, the active ingredient is the same, but it is released differently in the body.  Long-acting or extended release forms often allow a child to take the medication just once a day before school, so they don’t have to make a daily trip to the school nurse for another dose.  

What are the side effects of stimulant medications?

The most commonly reported side effects are decreased appetite, sleep problems, anxiety, and irritability.  Some children also report mild stomachaches or headaches.  Most side effects are minor and disappear over time or if the dosage level is lowered.

  • Decreased appetite:  Be sure your child eats healthy meals.  Also talk to the doctor if you have concerns about your child’s growth or weight gain while he or she is taking the medication.
  • Sleep problems:  If a child cannot fall asleep, the doctor may prescribe a lower dose of the medication or a shorter-acting form.  The doctor might also suggest giving the medication earlier in the day, or stopping the afternoon or evening dose.  Adding a prescription for a low dose of an antidepressant sometimes helps with sleep problems.  A consistent sleep routine that includes relaxing elements like warm milk, soft music, or quiet activities in dim light, may also help.
  •  Less common side effects:  A few children develop sudden, repetitive movements or sounds called tics.  Changing the medication dosage may make tics go away.  Some children also may have a personality change, such as appearing “flat” or without emotion. 

Can adults have ADHD?      

Some children with ADHD continue to have it as adults.  Many adults who have the disorder don’t know it.  They may feel that it is impossible to get organized, stick to a job, or remember and keep appointments.  Daily tasks such as getting up in the morning, preparing to leave the house for work, arriving at work on time, and being productive on the job can be especially challenging for adults with ADHD.  These adults may have a history of failure at school, problems at work, or difficult or failed relationships or may have had multiple traffic accidents.  Like teens, adults with ADHD may seem restless and may try to do several things at once, most of them unsuccessfully.  They also tend to prefer “quick fixes,” rather than taking the steps needed to achieve greater rewards.

How is ADHD diagnosed in adults?

Like children, adults who suspect they have ADHD should be evaluated by a Psychologist. To be diagnosed with the condition, an adult must have ADHD symptoms that began in childhood and continued throughout adulthood.  Psychologists use certain rating scales to determine if an adult meets the diagnostic criteria for ADHD. The Psychologist will also look at the person’s history of childhood behavior and school experiences, and can interview spouses or partners, parents, and/or close friends.  For some adults, a diagnosis of ADHD can bring a sense of relief.  Adults who have had the disorder since childhood, but who have not been diagnosed, may have developed negative feelings about themselves over the years. Receiving a diagnosis allows them to understand the reasons for their problems, and treatment will allow them to deal with their problems more effectively.

How is ADHD treated in adults?

Much like children with the disorder, adults with ADHD are treated with medication, psychotherapy, or a combination of treatments.

  • Medications:  ADHD medications, including extended-release forms, often are prescribed for adults with ADHD.  Although not FDA-approved specifically for the treatment of ADHD, antidepressants are sometimes used to treat adults with ADHD.  Older antidepressants, called tricyclics, sometimes are used because they, like stimulants, affect the brain chemicals norepinephrine and dopamine.  A newer antidepressant, venlafaxine (Effexor), also may be prescribed for its effect on the brain chemical norepinephrine.  The antidepressant bupropion (Wellbutrin), which affects the brain chemical dopamine, shows benefits for adults with ADHD.
  • Education and Psychotherapy:  A Psychologist can help an adult with ADHD learn how to organize his or her life with tools such as a large calendar or date book, lists, reminder notes, and by assigning a special place for keys, bills, and paperwork.  Large tasks can be broken down into more manageable, smaller steps so that completing each part of the task provides a sense of accomplishment.
  • Cognitive Behavioral Therapy:  Can help change one’s poor self-image by examining the experiences that produced it.  The Psychologist encourages the adult with ADHD to adjust to the life changes that come with treatment, such as thinking before acting, or resisting the urge to take unnecessary risks.